Chris - Green
3.1.1 -- The most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things are:

These elements combined make up 96% of the human body, and without any of these elements no organism would be able to survive.

Alex - Ugly Green-brown

3.1.2--State that a variety of other elements are needed by living organisms, including sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium.

Elements that are required in the human body, but only in small amounts are called Trace Elements. These elements are essential to the life of Human beings but are poisonous in large amounts. For example, without Iodine people develop Iodine deficiency which enlarges the Thyroid Gland to a massive size. This can interrupt breathing and cause other health problems.
goiter.jpg<--- This is what an enlarged Thyroid Gland looks like.
3.1.3--State one role for each of the elements mentions in 3.1.2

Sulfur- It is a part of the methionine and cysteine amino acids. These amino acids are present in many proteins in the human body.
Calcium- Calcium not only assists in bone growth, but also helps regulate your heart rate!
Phosphorus- Is found in Phospholipids which are an important part of the cell membrane.
Iron- Is found in the hemoglobin that makes up your blood. With Iron deficiencies you may feel dizzy or tired.
Sodium- Is used in the balance of your bodies pH.

3.1.4. --Below is a picture of a bunch of water molecules bonded together by weak hydrogen bonds. The blue spots in each molecule are hydrogen molecules and the red spots are oxygen molecules. The two different elements have different charges, making the molecule is polar. The molecules polarity is the reason that they are attracted to each other, as shown in the diagram below. The hydrogen molecules are attracted to the oxygen molecules and vice versa.


Tamana - Black
3.1.5 - Outline Thermal, solvent, and cohesive properties of water:

Water also has some physical properties relating to heat that add to its usefulness as a biological solvent
Heat Capacity:
Water has a high heat capacity. Which allows it to absorb or lose a relatively large amount of heat without undergoing a large change in temperature. This provides an organism with a protection against the ill effects of a large external temperature change. Another way to say this is that large amount of water in our bodies stabilizes the temperature of our bodies.
Heat of Vaporization:
Water also has a very large heat of vaporization. We use this high heat of vaporization to cool off on a hot day. When we perspire, the evaporating water absorbs about 540 calories of heat from the body for each gram of water that evaporates. This transfer of heat provides an effective means of cooling our bodies.

Heat Capacity/Heat of Vaporization

water- 1.0/540
CCl4- 0.2/50
etthanol- 0.6/90
acetone- 0.5/ 130
Water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. Since the oxygen atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms, the bonds are polar and the electrons are pulled toward the oxygen. The molecule also has a bent shape making the molecule itself a polar molecule. As a result, water is an excellent solvent for other polar molecules. Water is also an excellent solvent for both positive and negatively charged ions. The natural attraction between positive and negative keeps the ions surrounded by water molecules and therefore dissolved in solution. All of those are hydrophilic meaning water-loving, nonpolar molecules are hydrophic meaning water-fearing. Water's high polarity makes it a very poor solvent for nonpolar molecules

Water is cohesive, water molecules tend to stick together, up to a point. Many insects take advantage
of the surface tension brought about at the surface of lakes and
pond by cohesion to walk on the surface of the water -->
external image 0_quiz_waterbug.jpg Good Video

3.1.6 - Explain the relationship between the properties of water and its uses in living organisms as a coolant, medium for metabolic reactions and transport medium:

Water's high heat capacity allows it to be an excellent coolant. Water as a medium for metabolic reactions is an incredibly excellent solvent (lots of things readily dissolve in water) and is very stable and non-reactive, which means that things that are dissolved or suspended in water generally are not damaged by the encounter

Water is a good solvent: water molecules can also attract ions, or charged particles. This makes it able to dissolve other substances easily and enables it to be a good transport medium.Water has good adhesion: water molecules are attracted to other polar molecules, and to solid surfaces. Water molecules adhere to, for eg. xylem vessels in plants - enabling water movement up the stem.Hydrogen bonding also water makes capillary action possible: the ability of water to pull itself upward through small openings against the pull of gravity. The water molecules adhere to the surface of the material in the opening, and cohere to each other - eg. in xylem

Elisabeth - Purple

​ 3.2.1- Organic compounds contain carbon, and are also produced by living things. Inorganic compounds are produced by non-living things and/or has had human interference and lack carbon.

Amino Acids-

Glucose- glucose.gif

Ribose- Ribose.png

Fatty Acids- fatty_acids.jpg

Kathryn - Blue

Monosaccharides: The most basic form of carbohydrates, they are the simplest form of sugars.
- Glucose
- Fructose
- Galactose
Disaccharides: a carbohydrate formed from two simple sugars (monosaccharides).
- Sucrose
- Lactose
- Maltose
Polysaccharides: macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monsaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages.
- Glycogen
- Cellulose
- Starch

State one function of glucose, lactose, and glycogen in animals:

Glucose is used for cellular respiration. Cells get the energy they need from the glucose molecules, simple sugars like this are a major source of energy.
Lactose is broken down by lactase to form galactose and glucose which are then absorbed by the small intestine.
Glycogen is stored carbs, to later be broken down into glucose and used for energy.

State one function of fructose, sucrose, and cellulose in plants:

Sucrose is a major transporter for sugars and provides energy for plants organs unable to perform photosynthesis.
Fructose is used as a quick source of energy.
Cellulose is used as a structural component in plant cell walls.